Gender and Diversity and Counseling and Training: Current Research


Vogel, D. L., Bitman, R., & Boysen, G. A.(in progress). Examining implicit bias and multicultural competency among counselor and counselor trainees.


The assessment of attitudes toward diversity among counselor trainees has relied on self-report measures. Implicit measures might offer a valuable addition to self-report because they assess biased attitudes indirectly, do not rely on conscious introspection, and often demonstrate bias that contradicts self-reported attitudes. The goal of the current study is to examine the level of implicit bias toward lesbians and gay men among a national sample of counselors and counselor trainees. The results would add to our understanding, assessment, and training of future multiculturally competent counselors.  

Sweet, D., Vogel, D. L., & Bitman, R. (in progress). Gender differences in depression: Facial affect and body language indicators.


Research suggests gender bias exists during diagnosis in medicine (e.g., Chiaramonte & Friend, 2006), and this trend is also seen in mental health care (e.g., Stabb, Cox, & Harber, 1997). This bias represents a serious concern because it frequently leads to misdiagnosis, under diagnosis, or over diagnosis particularly across gender lines (Knudson-Martin, 1997; Knudson-Martin and Mahoney, 1996); consequently there is a need for unique approaches that will mitigate these biases. For example, using objective nonverbal assessments might reduce clinicians making stereotypical gender attributions (see Lopez, 1989; Nutt, 1992; Nelson, 1993 for reviews). The importance of developing and integrating innovative approaches with mental health screening practices is key to having a more robust understanding of the different ways mentla health concerns such as depression manifests within young women and men. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPTF, 2002) reports screening for depression in a primary care setting is beneficial for patient outcomes, yet research does suggest that 30%–50% of patients who suffer from depression go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed and consequently untreated (Simon & Von Korff, 1995). One explanation for misdiagnosis of depression in patients is likely an over attendance to patients’ verbal responses and limited attendance to patients’ nonverbal behavior during screenings (Ormel & Tiemens, 1995). The significance of this proposed research is evinced through coupling objective behavioral measures with current screening practices. In so doing, we can not only reduce the number of missed diagnoses but also mitigate gender bias and reduce occurrences of over- and under diagnosis. The proposed research is examines the nonverbal behavior of men and women during s screening protocal to identify nonverbal cues that could be indicative of depression and that could explain differences in diagnoses between women and men. The ultimate goal is to be able to add a nonverbal behavior assessment component (BAC) to current screening practices, primary care physicians (PCP) and mental health professionals (MHP) could identify more patients at risk for depression with less gender bias and fewer diagnostic missteps.

Wester, S. R., Vogel, D. L., O’Neil, J. M., & Lindsay, D. (in progress). Validity of the Gender Role Conflict Short Form (GRCS-SF).


Within the literature on the psychology of men, the gender role conflict paradigm has been one of the most productive research programs explaining the impact of restrictive gender roles in men’s lives. Recently, the short form of the GRCS, the GRCS-SF, was designed to address concerns about item content of the GRCS. The goal of this research is to further examine the relaibilty and validity of the GRCS-SF to better understand it sosychometrics and potential for clinical use among three new samples.